The impact of cigarette and alcohol consumption on weight and obesity. Most of the weight gain occurs in the year after quitting, particularly in the first three months. Further factors also may be involved. As a result, smoking increases the risk of metabolic syndrome and diabetes, and these factors increase risk of cardiovascular disease. The causes of weight gain after quitting smoking may include the effect of nicotine withdrawal on the body such as a slower metabolism, and the feeling of hunger pangs , increased hunger, comfort eating or replacing one hand-to-mouth action with another. Chain smoking Cigarette smoking for weight loss Nicotine poisoning Passive smoking Third-hand smoke Schizophrenia and smoking Sidestream smoke Smoking cessation Tobacco harm reduction.
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Studies have shown that weight gain during the smoking cessation process can often be lost eventually through diet and exercise. Metabolic syndrome was shown to be associated with smoking. Nicotine increases energy expenditure both by direct effects on peripheral tissues, largely mediated by catecholamines, and by effects on central nervous system neuroendocrine circuits. An informative test of the long-term safety of nicotine per se is the use of snus, a form of smokeless tobacco, by men in Sweden. First, because smoking initiation was shown particularly in women to be associated with weight concern or dieting and overweight 7 , 37 , the association of smoking with obesity could show reverse causation, with overweight as the trigger for smoking. Chinn S, et al.